Independent Learning Approach

This includes: reflective-based, resource-based, negotiated and self-organised learning. Based on cognitive learning theories. This video is a summary of reflection in learning from Macquarie University:

Examples:

  • Jenny Moon’s approach to reflection-based learning = development from description to reflective account; from no questions to questions to responding to questions; emotional influence is recognised, and then handled increasingly effectively; there is a ‘standing back from the event’; self-questioning, challenge to own ideas; recognition of relevance of prior experience; the taking into account of others’ views to metacognition – review of own reflective processes (Moon, 2004)

Further Reading:

  • Universal Design for Learning suggests tutors present information and content in different ways to reflect a variety of learning approaches.
  • Gagne and the instructional theories focus on testing of predictable learning and giving feedback through technology (Gagné, Briggs, & Wager, 1992)

The ideas for technology enhanced learning activities below use a range of tools and are based on the Best Practice Principles.

Activities using Wikis

  • Wiki pages can be created, edited and shared by users. This video is an overview of how they work:

Tools

Suggested learning activities that are mapped to the Best Practice Principles are below.

Active Induction

Guided Exploration

Facilitated Investigation

Self-organised Learner

Student access wikis prepared by tutor Students find and evaluate wikis Students work in groups to create and share learning materials on wikis Students create own wikis for learning and sharing in community

Activities using Smart Kapp Boards

Active Induction

Guided Exploration

Facilitated Investigation

Self-organised Learner

Tutor presents, saves and shares notes from board Student groups present, save and share group work outputs Students access prepared notes for revision via VLE Students create, save and share learning materials for peers

Activities using Capture Technologies

  • Capture technologies will record lectures and seminars and can be saved to the VLE, or uploaded to Media library or YouTube etc.
  • Tools include mobile devices and webcams. Panopto has also been installed in some classrooms
  • Suggested learning activities that are mapped to the Best Practice Principles are below.

Active Induction

Guided Exploration

Facilitated Investigation

Self-organised Learner

Students record lecture on own device Students share and discuss captures Students create captures and share with peers Groups collaborate to create and share captures
Students access classroom recordings on Blackboard Students access supplementary capture materials for independent study Students access captured materials to support flipped classroom activities Students post/ask assignment questions and access captured group response

Research

 

Activities using E-Portfolios

  • e-Portfolios are user-selected materials that typically demonstrate evidence of activities, examples of work and reflections on experience. They are often prepared during work experience or for employers. Some useful guides include: ‘JISC Effective Practice with e-Portfolios’; and JISC InfoNet: e-Portfolios
  • Tools for e-Portfolios include Blackboard e-Portfolio, and WordPress
  • Suggested learning activities that are mapped to the Best Practice Principles are below.

Active Induction

Guided Exploration

Facilitated Investigation

Self-organised Learner

Students access e-portfolio Student selects appropriate content to add Student manages e-portfolio Student shares e-portfolio with employers etc
Students create basic page structures based on template provided by tutor Students view and evaluate sample portfolios Students reflect on own and peers’ portfolio Students reflect on resources/ portfolio and skills demonstrated
Students map assignment to criteria Students select and submit e-resources for feedback Peer feedback used to develop resources Student presents e-portfolio for assessment /employer/ professional organisation
Student groups assigned a research topic Students research topic and create ePortfolio ePortfolios shared with cohort for comments Students complete individual assignment drawing on ePortfolio
Students take photos/ videos of own practical skills Students upload photos/ videos with keywords

 

Students update webfolio with additional images/ assets/ commentary to demonstrate skill development Students reflect on tutor’s feedback and updates action plan
Students create ePortfolio of treatment plans based on clinical case studies Students use assessment rubric to grade own ePortfolio Students use assessment rubric to peer-assess a peer’s ePortfolio Students submit ePortfolio to tutor for grading
Students create webfolio of activities over year

 

Students complete ‘capstone’ activity to draw together range of learning experiences Students share webfolio with tutors and professional organisations for accreditation  Webfolio is structured to reflect professional standards

(A number of these activities were adapted from the book Pebblegogy)

Other Models

Case studies

Activities using Social Bookmarking

Active Induction

Guided Exploration

Facilitated Investigation

Self-organised Learner

Students access tagged resources via social bookmark links in VLE. Students access and use tagged resources via social bookmark links in VLE. Students search for, evaluate and recommend additional links to add Students manage bookmarks as part of PLE
Students discuss ways to evaluate links Students suggest additional links to add Students create literature review using links Contact/ share content with external users

Case studies

Activities using Podcasting

Active Induction

Guided Exploration

Facilitated Investigation

Self-organised Learner

Students access induction/ guided tour Podcast Students search and locate relevant podcasts Students create own podcast as authentic artefact
Tutor creates introductory subject podcast Students subscribe to recommended podcasts and listen on PC or mobile device Students subscribe to own selection of relevant podcasts and listen on PC or mobile device  Students create podcast as evidence for portfolio
Students access podcasts created by students from previous cohort Students listen to podcast of lecture prior to class discussion/ workshop Students create reflective podcast
Take photos, audio clips etc during guided tour Students participate in podcast-creation workshop Podcast content assessed as part of other assignment Assessment of reflection on process of creation and use of podcast

Other Models

  • Model developed by Leicester University project IMPALA

Case studies

Research

Activities using Mobile Devices

  • Most students now have access to their own laptops and smartphones for learning
  • Suggestions for apps include RefME (iPhone and Android), Lecture Capture (iPhone) and LectureRecordings (Android), and StudyBlue (iPhone and Android)
  • Mobile apps are available for Blackboard Learn and Collaborate
  • Suggested learning activities that are mapped to the Best Practice Principles are below.

Active Induction

Guided Exploration

Facilitated Investigation

Self-organised Learner

Students sign up for SMS alerts Students access weekly updates and announcements via SMS or RSS Students contribute annotations/ comments / content to group web page /wiki Use calendar to plan own work schedule
Students access course announcements Students access web links of relevant resources  Upload audio comments /feedback /research findings via iPadio or voicethread Log keeping/ e-portfolio building in the field/ work-based.
Students access FAQ Access Blackboard forums Upload images to blog / image sharing site Create video to upload to e-portfolio
Engage in location based game/ activity Online quiz on content/skills with instant feedback Create podcasts /video to share  Gaming/scenarios/simulation

Case studies

Activities Using Mind-maps

Active Induction

Guided Exploration

Facilitated Investigation

Self-organised Learner

Tutors create maps of lesson content Students view curriculum maps Students work in groups to create and share maps Students create reflective maps
Students view concept mind maps created by tutor Students create own maps during lectures Student evaluate maps created by others Students share group maps with externals

Case studies

Activities using Multiple Choice Questions

  • MCQ’s can be used to check prior learning, challenge and to revise learning.
  • Tools for MCQ’s include Blackboard, Nearpod and Socrative
  • Suggested learning activities that are mapped to the Best Practice Principles are below.

Active Induction

Guided Exploration

Facilitated Investigation

Self-organised Learner

Student accesses all assessment information (titles, dates, instructions etc) via ‘Assessment Area’ in VLE Students review and select (if available) assessment choices or options. Students submit digital assessments through tools specified Students access feedback via ‘My Grades’ and use to reflect on learning
Students access and review feedback Students use feedback to inform learning and reflect  Students assess own and others’ work against rubrics and give feedback Students design own assessments based on learning plans
Complete MCQ on pre-requisite content  Completes MCQ on new content Students prepares MCQ for peers linked to assessment criteria Tutor reviews student-generated MCQ and selects/edits for students to complete

Assessment and Feedback Resources

Case studies