The World Cup: Sports tourism bringing Nations together?

By Carol Southall, Senior Lecturer, Staffordshire Business School

 

In recent years the phenomenon of sports tourism has grown in popularity, not least because of technological advances facilitating online ticket bookings and confirming event and venue scheduling. Sports tourism is certainly one of the fastest growing sectors of the global travel industry and refers to travelling to another destination, away from where the traveller normally lives and works, in order to observe or participate in a sporting event.

The Russia World Cup 2018 is an opportunity to bring people together from different nations across the world with a common interest…diversity, and of course football! Spread over 1,800 miles from Kaliningrad on the Baltic coast to Ekaterinburg at the foot of the Ural mountains, 12 stadiums across Russia will host the 64 matches that comprise the 2018 FIFA World Cup. Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow, the largest venue and one of the newest, will hold the first game of the tournament on 14 June and also the final, 31 days later. England’s first match against Tunisia on Tuesday 18th June at the purpose-built Volgograd Arena, almost 600 miles south-east of Moscow, is likely to be a key draw for the thousands of football fans heading to Russia.

Covering over 17 million square kilometres, 11 time zones, and with a population of almost 147 million, Russia is the largest country in the World. With over 200 ethnicities and ethnic groups and more than 100 languages and dialects, plus 28 UNESCO World Heritage sites and several thousand museums, Russia is working hard to promote its tourism potential. Interestingly on the Russia Travel website, to which fans applying for a FAN ID are directed when they enquire about tourism opportunities during their stay in Russia, there is a reference to the ‘Miracles of Russia’ in the host towns and cities, and the fact that “all these have nothing to do with the habitual stereotypes of Russia”. This is evidently an ideal opportunity to debunk some myths surrounding perceptions of Russia as a destination.

Red Square, Moscow, Russia

Studies show that major events can be a positive force in bringing nations together and enhancing and strengthening national identity. Whether Russia needs to strengthen its national identity, or indeed which countries need to strengthen their national identity, is a moot point. What is clear is that any such tournament that brings the world together should only serve to strengthen national pride and identity and facilitate an element of cultural understanding.

As a traveller you often find that wherever you are in the world, the common language is football. You may not be able to hold a conversation in a native tongue beyond ‘hello’ and ‘thank-you’ but mention the relative merits of the better-known English football clubs and you can hold a conversation for the duration of a taxi ride.

Clearly participation in football, whether as a player or spectator, plays a major role in social and global cohesion, enhancing social capital. Football creates its own world order, deviating from the hegemonic power relations that characterise world politics. Conversely, the mutual respect and consideration that should be evident in all international sport tourism is sometimes overshadowed by political tensions, causing hostility where there should be empathy and understanding.

Since the selection of the host nation, 8 years ago, political tensions have certainly overshadowed the event. The BBC recently reported that England should wear black armbands during the World Cup to protest against the Russian regime, with a prominent MP suggesting that the FIFA tournament is a massive propaganda coup for Russia. Additionally the violent clashes between English and Russian football hooligans at Euro 2016 have led to concern of a repeat performance at the 2018 World Cup. Russia’s significant investment in the tournament, and the need to avoid any tarnishing of the event, has led to Russian hard-core supporters being contacted by police and officially warned to behave. Similarly local UK supporters have also been warned, and in some cases had their passports confiscated by police for the duration of the tournament.

The role and responsibility of football in the world is significant and its importance in social cohesion and nation building should not be underestimated. Conversely, we should also recognise the power of football to incite violence and xenophobia. Regardless of the political tensions that overshadow the tournament this year, it is hoped that the UK and international sports tourists travelling to Russia on their FAN IDs (a personalised spectator’s card – offering visa-free entry to Russia for supporter’s holding World Cup tickets) will take the opportunity and time to explore, experience and engage with Russia’s culture and people. Only then can there be any hope of the mutual respect and understanding that football has the power to facilitate.

Follow Carol on twitter @cdesouthall

FdA Visitor Attraction and Resort Management


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Preparing for Brexit: Economic forecasts versus wishful thinking

During the Referendum campaign, Michael Gove notoriously commented that the British public had “had enough of experts”, in particular of economic forecasters. This article explains a little about (i) economic forecasting and (ii) why economic forecasts may be useful even if they cannot be completely accurate.

Economic forecasting is like medical diagnosis. The economy and the human body are both complex systems that are still imperfectly understood. Your GP has to make a diagnosis on the basis of limited information: headache; flue; or meningitis? From the perspective of public health advice, the situation is no less difficult. For example, official advice on diet is much contested. Advice changes as new evidence becomes available.

When economists forecast or predict the impact of Brexit, they start with a diagnosis of the current “health” of the “patient”. Is the UK economy delicate or in rude health? Since experiencing the economic equivalent of a heart attack during the Global Financial Crisis of 2008-09, the UK has undergone stagnant productivity (and, hence, wages), low investment, record levels of household debt, public sector austerity, and now low growth during a world economic upturn. Economists diagnosing the patient along such lines would tend to recommend against administering a shock to the patient. However, economists, like doctors and medical researchers, differ in their diagnoses. Other economists might point to unprecedented levels of people in employment and conclude that the UK economy is more or less fit, and that Brexit is just the tonic needed to make it thrive.

Even when medical experts can give an accurate diagnosis (headache or a brain tumour), they will typically be unable to give a completely accurate prognosis (if the diagnosis is a brain tumour, does the patient have weeks, months or years to live?). There are too many unknowns. However, the well-trained and experienced medical expert may be able to give useful guidance. It is similar in economic diagnosis/prognosis (or, in economic terminology, analysis/forecasting). Government ministers confronted with politically inconvenient forecasts often dismiss them by pointing out that forecasts are predictions of the future, which is unknown. In any case, they often continue, economic forecasts are usually wrong. Yet, just as medical diagnosis and prognosis are useful for guiding treatment, so economic forecasts – even though not precisely accurate – can be useful for guiding government policy. For example, forecasts of economic growth enable the planning of government borrowing and/or tax changes to fund spending commitments. Such forecasts offer broad guidance on the future state of the economy and thus a rational basis for policy. In short, expert forecasts are the alternative to wishful thinking. As such, economic forecasts help to guard against astonishment and panic as the drivers of policy.

One reason why economic forecasts were so easily dismissed during the Referendum campaign – and subsequently – is that most forecasters failed to foresee the Global Financial Crisis. Unfortunately, for most – although by no means all – reputable economists, financial crisis was an “unknown unknown”. (In public health, a rough analogy would be failure in the early 1980s to predict the appearance and rapid spread of AIDS.) In contrast, forecasting the economic effects of Brexit – and now its more or less “hard”/”soft” variants – is to think about “known unknowns”. “Known”, because we know roughly what is coming; but “unknown”, because we cannot know its precise consequences. The consequences of Brexit are unknown and so must be estimated – in other words, forecast. In preparing businesses and government for Brexit, economic forecasts, if used within their limitations, have the potential to enrich understanding of likely threats and opportunities and thus improve preparations.

Disclosure: the author voted Remain, and would do so in future if given the opportunity.

Professor Geoff Pugh, Staffordshire Business School

Three Grassroots Organisations And Why The Future Of UK Esports Looks Bright – Jamie Wootton

Jamie Wootton is an esports blogger and enthusiast who started his blog, ‘Watch This Space’, in early 2018. Since then he has interviewed members of the UK esports scene including a photographer, Managing Director of an esports team and UK FIFA Commentator. Jamie also conducted an exclusive interview with Tom Deacon, former comedian and full-time desk host for Gfinity. Below is Jamie’s blog: ‘Three Grassroots Organisations And Why The Future Of UK Esports Looks Bright’

 

“Whilst it’s no secret that the UK esports scene has been lagging behind other nations in the majority of esports titles, the future is now looking bright for several reasons. Firstly, existing esports players and organisations are beginning to make a name for themselves. Recently, CS:GO player Smooya has joined Major Legends BIG, and exceL Esports had a quarter final finish at the EU Masters LOL tournament in Leicester; a tournament which featured some world renowned organisations and teams such as the Ninjas in Pyjamas and Origen. Secondly, a series of esports organisations have cropped up with the intention of promoting grassroots esports and helping improve the standard of play in the UK. The following article will explore three organisations that are helping the scene evolve including Gfinity’s Challenger Series; UKPL and Game’s Belong Arenas.

Gfinity Challenger Series

Gfinity’s Challenger Series has proved itself as being somewhat of a success. The subordinate league to the Elite Series supports competition in three different esports titles and showcases players who excel at their respective esport. Once the Challenger Series’ season is over, top gamers are drafted onto the esports teams that are part of Gfinity’s new franchised system. Although the league has elevated players to the next level of competition, the league faced some criticism at the beginning of its tenure. Some who were drafted into professional organisations were unhappy with their play time and disappointed at what little chance they had to prove themselves on the big stage. However, Kieran Holmes-Darby, exceL Esports’ owner, in a BBC3 interview, responded to this criticism by asking, “Why should it [the path into professional esports] be easy?” Despite some teething problems, talent drafted in through the Challenger Series have worked themselves to the top of their respective esports and proved themselves to be top tier professionals. Rannerz for instance, along with his team mate Zimme, managed to pick up the Gfinity Elite Series Season 3 trophy for their organisation AS Roma Esports Fnatic. Rannerz proved himself in the Challenger Series and was drafted in by one of the world’s most elite organisations and went the distance to demonstrate why he is the best.

UKPL

Inspired by ESEA’s RankS and created on the foundations of Faceit hubs, UKPL has become the proving ground for semi-professional, and professional, CS:GO players in the UK. It has provided them with a platform to rise through the ranks and progress to the globally recognised FPL, from which, many of today’s young Counter Strike professionals, such as Mousesports’ Ropz, have elevated their performance and made a place for themselves in pro scene. Despite its infancy, UKPL offers competitors prizes for placing in certain positions in their leagues and caters for upcoming talent, giving them a podium from which to get noticed and picked up by UK or international organisations. UKPL by nature is grassroots, however not the badly run and embarrassingly unorganised type of grassroots. On the contrary, the service is run by some of the scenes most experienced professionals and boasts having the likes of seasoned veteran MightyMax, Epsilon Esport’s very own coach Kieta and an industry leading observer in the form of Sliggy in the role of admins. The circuit’s 4 leagues offer their 4000+ members a chance to shine, progress and prove themselves to outside organisations.

GAME’s Belong Arenas

GAME’s Belong Arenas aren’t the first of their kind in the UK as similarly styled gaming centres and tournament venues have been around for decades now. However, having been there and experienced it first hand, I get the impression that they have nearly perfected the gaming centre experience. Although GAME itself is a nationwide chain and its Arenas follow suit and therefore would struggle to be classed as grassroots, I do believe its fair to say that the steps the business is taking are in the interest of grassroots esports and appear to have a focus on improving the scene. Due to there being 19 Belong Arenas across England, Scotland and Wales with each being backed by GAME, they can all compete against one another. By joining their local Arena’s “tribe”, players from any background can compete against other Arena’s “tribes”. Members of tribes take part in weekly events and community nights at local Arenas and, at the end of season, a grand final takes place. Recently, the grand final took place on a large stage at Insomnia 62 and saw tribes battling it out, each representing their region, for glory. Watching it live in person surrounded by roughly 100 other engaged spectators felt awesome, but I can’t begin to imagine what it must have felt like from the players perspective. It must have been so surreal. Whilst this sort of opportunity doesn’t provide teams and players with a contract or salary, it does provide a platform from which competitors can experience a professional competitors lifestyle and, as such, compete and prove themselves on big stages in front of hundreds.

So, to conclude, whether it’s the Challenger Series’ efforts to put players into a premier competition through a sound league and drafting system; UKPL’s determination to improve the UK CS:GO scene by providing an environment for UK players to play and shine amongst one another or even Game’s push to build a communally competitive spirit in their Belong Arenas by hosting community nights and regional tournaments, grassroots esports in the UK is looking like it’s on the up.”

Jamie Wootton, Esports Blogger 

Love esports? Why not study on our BA (Hons) Esports course, or if you already have a business, computing or digital related degree why not study on new our MA Esports course!

 

Free training for over 50’s!

Have you got to that point in your life where you feel its time for a change, a new direction, new job or new career? Well self-employment can offer a more flexible form of working, that may allow older people to stay in work for longer. Age UK says that older workers are more likely to have a higher chance of success with over 70 per cent of these businesses lasting over five years.

Still not convinced, well one of our Silver Worker trainees is a lady who through illness had been unable to work for the latter part of last year. She says it made her think about where she was “after over 60 years on life`s highway” and where she wanted the next part of her journey to take her.

She signed up for the Silver Workers free business start up training and has now taken the next steps in achieving her goal. She said:

The Silver Workers project has been catalytic and came at just the right time to help me to look at what transferable skills and talents I have.  It started my development of ideas that could become a new business and build on my previous work and experience”.

 “I have been to three sessions so far and I have started to answer my own question, `who am I` by listening to other people in the group, speaking about my ideas and using the Silver Workers platform.  Even today I am still working with my ideas and as with any creative process there is a developing sense of where I am going but I don’t think I am fully there yet.”

 “this also helped me to understand not only my strengths but also areas that I need to work on.  My confidence is not always so good with networking and talking to people about myself and what I do, so albeit I shy away from this I know it is an area for development as I journey on with my business”

 “Thank you, Hazel, Tom and Marzena for helping me to understand that even being over 60 I can be creative and have something valuable to offer”

Staffordshire Business School have developed this project which includes face to face sessions and on-line support allowing people to work at the pace that suits them. This course will suit anyone looking to develop skills to either set up a business or looking to get back in to work The course can help to develop both the confidence, mind-set and skills in this area.

If you would like to participate in this free training, then please contact Hazel Squire at h.squire@staffs.ac.uk  or Marzena Rezska at Marzena.Rezska2@staffs.ac.uk

 

The Meghan Markle Effect

Some of us will view the nuptials of Prince Harry & Meghan Markle as an excuse to celebrate a royal event and share the day either watching on television, online or with friends & family. Others will prefer to save their energies for the FA Cup Final later in the afternoon. Whatever your views on the Royal Family, Meghan Markle is not only entering one of the most famous families in the world but also one of the most successful global brands. The Royal brand generates annually upwards of £1.8bn to the U.K. economy (Brand Finance 2017) and Meghan herself is expected to generate £150m for British fashion brands over the next year (Ibisworld 2018).

St George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle, the venue for the Royal Wedding

Yet the Royal brand is not just a twenty-first century invention. Previous generations of royals have used their brand to leverage value in some less orthodox ways. Queen Victoria is hailed as championing the Scottish Highlands as the romantic tourist destination of well-heeled Victorians of the nineteenth century. Prior to that George III, raised the profile of Brighton as the Regency destination of the eighteenth century. More recently the current Royal brand has adopted a more overtly commercial stance extending their franchise to include multiple product lines from tea towels & cushions, celebration china & visitor experiences to the royal palaces. However, it is the secondary brand associations that generate the most income. When the Duchess of Cambridge steps out in a new outfit, within minutes the product line can be sold out, due to the speed and interest on social media.

So what value will Meghan bring to this hugely successful global brand? Interestingly she brings to the brand something that many commentators of the wedding of the year have overlooked. Unlike her contemporaries & predecessors, past Duchesses and Princesses, she brings a highly successful acting career. With the ageing population in the UK, the Royal Family needs to reconnect with Generation Z (16-25 year olds), and Meghan may be the person to do this. A quick chat with members of this generation shows the chasm in comparison between Meghan and her royal contemporaries. Views such as Meghan’s successful career and her broader life experiences, her ethnicity and her obvious contemporary beauty connects her with this generation more strongly perhaps than her future sister-in-law. So this is her brand strength. She is strong articulate and intelligent. Unique and authentic.

So what are the dangers this Royal brand could face? One is over-exposure, which always devalues a premium brand. The other is over extension into excessive product lines and mass commercialisation and linked with this a lack of exclusivity and authenticity. If Meghan wants to become more than a fashion icon she will need to navigate these brand waters carefully.

Official Engagement Photo https://twitter.com/kensingtonroyal/status/943813005770395648

On Saturday Meghan will enter this world. She will step out in a wedding dress worth thousands of pounds and instantly Instagram, Twitter, WhatsApp & Facebook will go into overdrive. Images of the first glimpse of the dress will go global across the digital stratosphere and Meghan will become one of the most talked about human beings on the planet. Whatever your view on the Royal Family, the firm is now a brand. Managing this Royal brand online and off will be a challenge, but with her experience in the commercial world of TV and media Meghan should be better placed than most to deal with this – we wish her and her future husband well, health and happiness and a full & meaningful life growing the Royal brand.

 

Vicky Roberts, Senior Lecturer in Staffordshire Business School

Consent to using cookies is “baked” in the GDPR

Recently, you may have noticed when you log onto a company’s website or an Application (App) like Google or Twitter, there are alerts that their terms and conditions have been revised, or their privacy policy has been updated. You might also be inundated with requests for your consent to the use of cookies when visiting their site (refer to the examples below).

Example 1: ”Cookies on JohnLewis.com

Source: www.johnlewis.com accessed 3 May 2018

These types of notices are likely due to the fact that the General Data Protection Regulation (GDRP), which was passed by the European Union in 2016 and is coming into effect on May 25, 2018.

Example 2 of www.Barbour.com/uk request for consent to using of cookies on their website

Source: https://www.barbour.com/uk accessed 3 May 2018

The GDPR is a new digital privacy regulation which standardizes different privacy legislation across the EU. It is a legally binding regulation. Ignoring it could lead to fines of 4% of a company’s global turnover, or fines up to £17.6 million (20 million Euros) whichever is higher.

Explicit and informed consent is now required if a company wants to collect any personal data about a European citizen. This is not just having individuals check a consent box on the company’s website. A company will have to inform individuals exactly where their data is going. As well, individuals always have the right to say “NO” to their data being collected, that is, a company can’t stop an individual from using its website just because the individual does not consent to the company’s collection of his or her personal data. In the past, individuals would likely agree to a trade-off, that is, you can collect my data if I can use your site or use your app. That has now changed.

The GDPR provides individuals with the right to access their own data that the company has collected and individuals also have the ability to request that their data be deleted. Companies will be limited in the amount of personal data they can collect to that which is actually needed for specified and legitimate purposes.

Example 3: www.Cadbury.co.uk’s “Accept the use of cookies”

Source: https://www.cadbury.co.uk accessed 3 May 2018

Interestingly, even if a company is based in Australia, for example, the rules of the GDPR apply to them if a European citizen visits the company’s website or uses the company’s apps. So companies will need to be compliant with the GDPR even if they are based outside of Europe.

There is also special protection for children’s personal data. Companies who offer online services to children may need to obtain a parent’s or guardian’s consent in order to collect the child’s data, unless the child is 16 or over (although this may be lowered to 13 years old in the U.K.).

GDPR Basics for Marketers:

  • Ask for consent every time you collect data from someone, including tracking cookies – if you do not get consent you cannot track or collect it. Develop a way to track consent.
  • If people supply personal data on your website, then you need to make sure you have a way to provide this data back to people if they ask for it.
  • You will need a way to delete data, if requested to do so.
  • You may need to put systems in place that can verify individuals’ ages and a method to obtain parental or guardian consent, if required.

*For more information on the GDPR, please see Information Commissioner’s Office website at: https://ico.org.uk/

*Be sure to obtain legal advice. This content is meant only for educational purposes

Fatimah Moran, Senior Lecturer at Staffordshire Business School

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A trip to Iceland for Tourism and Events students!

Staffordshire Business School lecturers Paul Dobson and Carol Southall took the Level 5 Tourism and Event Management students to Reykjavik for 4 days as part of their Tourism and Events Service Operations Management module.


The students visited the Blue Lagoon, took a trip to see the Northern Lights and a city tour. They also attended a presentation by María Björk Gunnarsdóttir at Promote Iceland’s head office in Reykjavik, exploring the exponential growth in tourism in Iceland over the past 10 years and the marketing campaigns undertaken to facilitate this growth.

Additionally, both events and tourism students were tasked with analysing Harpa Concert Hall and Conference Centre, following a fascinating tour and presentation by Edda Austmann, Harpa’s Marketing Manager.

www.staffs.ac.uk

Click here for more information on Tourism and Event Management degrees

 

Sarah Willingham visits Staffordshire Business School

As a lecturer, nothing gives you more pleasure than to see your students shine. On Monday 19th March I could not have been prouder of our students, as we welcomed honorary doctor of Staffordshire University, Sarah Willingham to the Business School, as one of the judges of our Willingham’s Winners competition. Sarah has a string of accolades for her contributions to business and in 2016 was named one of the Sunday Times 500 most influential people in Britain. She is probably best known for her appearance on Dragon’s Den, but there is nothing dragon-like about her – a “Stokie” born and bred, Sarah is down-to-earth, full of good advice and a business role model for students.

Six teams were shortlisted to present their business ideas in the finals, pitching to a panel of four judges; Sarah Willingham, Ben Dyer from the Ryman National Enterprise Challenge, Mark Blackhurst CEO of DigitalNext and Professor Liz Boath from the School of Social Work, Allied and Public Health. The panel commended all students on the professionalism of their pitches, giving constructive feedback to support student development.

Following an enlightening conversation and Q&A session with Professor Rune By, Sarah announced the winners of the competition as Crafted. The winning team presented a business idea described by Sarah as “absolutely on trend”, with a flawless, professional pitch, offering a range of delicious cakes catering for the health and wellbeing needs of people with gluten intolerance.

It is not often that undergraduates have the opportunity to gain the advice of such an influential panel of judges and despite nerves, I’m proud to say that all the finalist teams represented Staffordshire Business School superbly – they most definitely did shine.

Angela Lawrence, Senior Lecturer
Staffordshire Business School

http://www.staffs.ac.uk/news/dragons-den-star-puts-business-students-through-their-paces-tcm4296104.jsp

Success in Accounting and Finance!

Rose Dawson, a level 6 student due to graduate, has been awarded the Association of Fraud Examiners (ACFE) Martin Grieves Memorial Scholarship. There is only one awarded each year. Rose got £9000 towards here final year and after graduating her first year is supported to gain the CPA qualification. She applied after a recommendation sent out from her award leader. Rose has also secured a job with Hawsons Chartered Accountants.
 

Dr Syed Zaidi, lecturer in Staffordshire Business School,  has had a paper submission to a three star journal and completed his VIVA
 

Dr Souad Moufty, lecturer in Staffordshire Business School,  is part of a successful ERASMUS project KA2 Strategic Partnerships funding. With a successful bid for work on Adoption of Sustainable Accounting Practices for Reporting. The project receives a share of € 293,650.00.

Our Masters students have secured some great jobs highlights include:

  • Andrew Holder – BurtonBeavan  (Accountancy Firm) Chartered Accountant training position
  • Anamaria Bobos – Burberry Financial Analyst
  • Precious Atienza – Coop Bank
  • Conor Howard – Bank of America, Merrill Lynch Investment

 Mark Wordley, lecturer in Staffordshire Business School, has had an article published in the Innovative Practice in Higher Education Journal. Mark has also been taken on as an external examiner for the University of Sussex 

 

The accounting department received Charter Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy (CIPFA) accreditation, resulting in 7 exemptions. This now makes the award triple accredited.

Karl McCormack, lecturer in Staffordshire Business School, has been awarded the Personal tutor of the year, proud to be staffs award 2017. He has also received the Commitment to excellence award at the Business, Leadership and Economics Pride awards. Karl had an article published in the Innovative Practice in Higher Education Journal. Karl also presented at the staff conference in September 2017.

The Accounting Accelerated award received 100% satisfaction and out of 27 metrics 20 of them were 100%. The three year degree has 92% satisfaction with 16 of the 27 metrics in the top 20 accounting courses and 10 in the top 10.

86% of the Accounting and Finance Accelerated students achieved a 2:1 or first.

Evaluating the potential of public policy to jointly promote firms’ exporting and innovation – new PhD for Ema Talam

Ema Talam - a new PhD student in the Business School

Ema Talam – a new PhD student in the Business School

Ema Talam has recently joined the Business School to start research for her PhD.  Her topic is “Evaluating the potential of public policy to jointly promote firms’ exporting and innovation”, supervised by Dr Mehtap Hisarciklilar-Riegler and Professor Geoff Pugh.

Ema completed her Bachelor’s degree in the field of management at the School of Economics and Business of University of Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina) and received the Golden Badge of the University of Sarajevo for her accomplishments.

Ema then completed her Master’s degree in Economics at the Faculty of Economics of the University of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Her Master’s thesis explored the link between (un)employment, income and ethnic tensions and was titled “The link between ethnic tensions and unemployment in multiethnic countries: The case of Bosnia and Herzegovina”.

At the beginning of 2018, Ema has received the Preseren Award of the Faculty of Economics of University of Ljubljana for her Master’s thesis. Ema has attended several other notable educational programmes, such as the International Summer School in Human Rights at University of Oslo (Norway) in 2014. So far, Ema has written and published two papers that covered two distinct topics: “Socialism and Marxian economics: An overview” and “The link between globalization and gender equality”.

Currently, Ema is surveying the literature. Generally exporting and innovation are treated as separate activities. Only a small portion of the literature recognises that the link between the two exists and explores the link between exporting and innovation (i.e. how exporting influences innovation and vice versa). Furthermore, public policies aimed at promoting exporting and innovation are directed towards just one of the activities. Numerous studies have evaluated the effects of such policies.

The research will examine the links between exporting and innovation. The research will explore how exporting and innovation affect firm performance, both when undertaken separately and jointly. Furthermore, it will analyse the impact of public policy support on exporting and innovation activities.

Finally, based on the all of the previously stated, the research will examine the implications of findings for policy and institutional design. The focus of this examination will be to explore whether programmes for firms aimed at supporting exporting and/or innovation activities should be designed and implemented jointly or separately.

Ema is on linkedin here

or email her on t028882h@student.staffs.ac.uk.